Binge Eating

Person using Apple Watch - River Centre Clinic

Binge Eating Study, Apple and Smartwatches

In 2014, the New York Times published an article that explored the ever-growing presence of smartwatches in healthcare. The article argued that watches in the future will not only track time in increasingly complex ways, but will also play a more critical role in helping people stay healthy. These new watches which mimic the nomenclature of the smartphone are collectively known as smartwatches. The article predicted that in the near future, these devices would go beyond simply transferring app usability from a smartphone to your wrist.

The long-term goal of these devices was to solve problems and deliver benefits to the user in a fundamentally new way that was unique to the smartwatch. These high-tech wristbands would track a person’s fitness level while simultaneously helping with the treatment and management of chronic health conditions. Since 2014, smartwatches have expanded in their functionality and popularity. Many smartwatches can help monitor heart conditions and sleep issues, but now these devices will assist in treating eating disorders.

For readers who are not familiar with smartwatches, here is a brief summary of these newer devices. Basically, a smartwatch is a small computer that is worn on the wrist. They can associate with a smartphone and are extensively used for long-term biomonitoring or telemetry. More recent smartwatches have smartphone functionality and utilize Bluetooth and LTE technology.

Reflecting current medical industry trends, many technology companies have been expanding there presence in the healthcare industry. The tech giant Apple has a number of rumored healthcare-themed projects. For example, a recent patent application that was made public suggests that the company may soon offer a wearable device that accurately monitors blood pressure. In a different healthcare specialty, Apple is donating smartwatches for a new research on eating disorders. The tech company will donate Apple Watches to a binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) study.

The term eating disorder is a broad medical term. The diagnostic system in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) classifies eating disorders into four basic diagnostic categories: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED) and Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED). The most notable change in the DSM-5 over the previous editions was the recognition of binge eating disorder as a separate eating disorder category. In recent years illnesses like bulimia have gained public attention. Entrepreneur, actor and political activist Jane Fonda recently spoke publicly about her battles with bulimia.

The goal of the binge eating study is to discover whether this illness is biological or behavioral in origin. More precisely, the study is hoping to better understand the genetic factors that may be associated with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN) in order to develop better treatments for the millions of people who suffer from these illnesses.

The creator of the iPhone is donating 1,000 of its Apple Watches to this study. The company itself is not conducting the study or analyzing any of the data. However, researchers believe that Apple’s smartwatch technology could help to greatly expand the medical understanding of how and why eating disorders occur. Participants in this study will wear the Apple Watch in order to monitor their heart rates over an entire month. They will use a mobile app on the smartwatch to record their thoughts and emotions during periods of binge eating activity. The researchers are investigating whether there are specific biological changes that occur in the body before a binge eating episode. Examples of biological changes that the study hopes to detect are changes in a person’s heart rate before each episode. This kind of data is something that the Apple Watch should readily detect and record.

A long-term goal is to use this data to predict binge eating episodes before they happen. In this way, medical professionals could specifically understand what happens to the human body in the time period leading up to binge and purging behavior. Ultimately, researchers hope to gain the ability to anticipate and change the course of these episodes.

Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) are dangerous conditions that require medical help. An individual suffering from bulimia nervosa may reveal several signs and symptoms, many which are the direct result of self-induced vomiting or other forms of purging, especially if the binge/purge cycle is repeated several times a week and/or day.

Physical signs and symptoms of this eating disorder include:

  • Constant weight fluctuations
  • Electrolyte imbalances, which can result in cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, or ultimately death
  • Broken blood vessels within the eyes
  • Enlarged glands in the neck and under the jawline
  • Oral trauma, such as lacerations in the lining of the mouth or throat from repetitive vomiting
  • Chronic dehydration
  • Inflammation of the esophagus
  • Chronic gastric reflux after eating or peptic ulcers

Other signs and symptoms of binge eating and purging are:

  • The disappearance of large amounts of food
  • Eating in secrecy
  • Lack of control when eating
  • Switching between periods of overeating and fasting
  • Frequent use of the bathroom after meals
  • Having the smell of vomit

Only experienced healthcare professionals can properly diagnosis eating disorders and provide crucial help. For additional information about binge eating and bulimia, please contact the staff at River Centre Clinic (RCC). Their Eating Disorders Programs provide a full range of treatment options for both adolescents and adults. The River Centre Clinic is located in the tranquil setting of Sylvania, Ohio – a historic suburb of Toledo, Ohio.

The EAT-26 (Eating Attitudes Test) assessment provides anonymous and quick feedback for a variety of eating-related health conditions.

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Binge Eating, Bulimia Nervosa, Apple, Smartwatches

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DBT For Eating Disorders

When people are struggling with binge eating behavior or weight management issues, they are sometimes told to simply eat less and exercise more. This advice, perhaps well intended, will potentially make the situation worse and create an unhealthy diet cycle that focuses on a negative body image and deprivation. People need a sound treatment plan that addresses the complexity of the behaviors, thinking patterns, and relationship with food. This is where a type of treatment known as Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is helpful. DBT is a type of therapy that combines elements of cognitive behavioral therapy with principles of from Zen Buddhism. DBT has been proven an effective theoretical framework that helps promotes changes that are necessary to treat binge eating as well as other eating disorders.

What is DBT?

Dialectical behavior therapy is a specific type of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy developed in the late 1980s by psychologist Dr. Marsha M. Linehan. The original goal of DBT was to find better treatment options for people suffering from borderline personality disorder. Dr. Linehan, who is currently a professor at the University of Washington actually developed DBT as a response to her own borderline personality disorder, which had previously not been properly treated. However, since the development of this therapy, it has been used to treat other kinds of mental health disorders.

Dialectical behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy (talk therapy) that utilizes a cognitive-behavioral approach that emphasizes the psychosocial aspects of treatment. The main concept behind DBT is the view that some people are prone to react in a more intense and out-of-the-ordinary manner toward certain emotional situations. These emotional situations are primarily triggered by romantic, family and friend relationships. DBT theory advocates that some people’s arousal levels in such situations can increase far more quickly than the average person’s, attain a higher level of emotional stimulation and thereby take significantly more time to return to baseline arousal levels.

Dialectical behavior therapy understands that there are times when people act on emotions that do not match a social situation. This is when a skill from dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) called “opposite action” is invaluable. It’s a skill that helps us to manage our emotions, enhance our relationships and enhance our lives. It’s a skill that helps us make more healthful decisions. DBT would advocate that an opposite action is required in these situations, because it allows people to recognize that their thoughts are not facts. Individuals learn how to experience emotional urges, but take the opposite action and not act on these urges. This provides a level of self-regulation and allows people to have more control over their thoughts, feelings and actions. Not surprisingly, dialectical behavior therapy is an effective treatment approach for people struggling with eating disorders.

A summary of how DBT works:

The term dialectical is based on the principle of blending two key ideas together, acceptance and change. In therapy, both of these ideas produce better results when they are combined together. DBT has patients focus on accepting their experiences, but simultaneously working on changing unhealthy behaviors. A major goal is to provide patients with the necessary skills that allow them to cope with, and change, these unhealthy behaviors. This form of therapy was initially designed to treat people with suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder. But, DBT has been successfully adapted to treat other mental health problems that threaten a person’s safety, relationships, work, and emotional well-being.

Traditional dialectical behavior therapy focuses on behavioral skills for four domains:

  1. Emotion regulation: Recognizing, labeling, and adjusting emotions.
  2. Interpersonal effectiveness: Navigating conflict and interacting assertively.
  3. Distress tolerance: Feeling intense emotions like anger without reacting impulsively or using self-injury or substance abuse to dampen distress.
  4. Mindfulness: Becoming more aware of self and others and attentive to the present moment.

DBT takes these four domains and applies them in a linear, multistep approach. The first step is to treat the most self-destructive behavior (suicide or self-injury). The next step is to control behavioral response such as emotional regulation, distress tolerance, and interpersonal effectiveness. The third and fourth steps promote better personal relationships and self-esteem while encouraging a sense of happiness and connection.

For additional information or questions about dialectical behavior therapy for eating disorders, contact the staff at River Centre Clinic (RCC). Their programs provide a full range of treatment options for both adolescents and adults. River Centre Clinic is located in Sylvania, Ohio.

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What is Emotional Eating and How to Stop It?

The occasional food craving is a normal behavior for many people. But when these cravings become something more, they could suggest larger underlying problems. This is where the term emotional eating enters the conversation. Emotional eating is not initial harmful, due to the fact that it satisfies a person’s immediate emotional impulse. However, a regular pattern of emotional eating can create various health problems.

What is emotional eating?

This eating behavior is a way for people to suppress negative feelings like stress, anger, fear, boredom, sadness or even loneliness. Major life events can trigger emotional eating such as problems with personal relationships, work, health or even financial pressures. When some people are in emotional distress, their food consumption patterns may become more impulsive and began to resemble binge eating behavior. The act of eating serves as a distraction with the focus on eating a “comfort food” providing momentary relief, versus dealing with a serious problem or painful situation.

In other words, consuming comfort food during times of stress can provide temporary gratification. But, this food consumption will not fulfill a person’s actual emotional needs or solve ongoing problems.

 

Why do people engage in emotional eating?

The reasons as to why people may engage in emotional eating are complex. Part of this behavior is likely due to our evolutionary roots. In ancient hunting and gathering societies, stress was a signal to the body to consume more calories for survival purposes. This behavior may have helped 100,000 years ago, but is now ill-suited to our sedentary lifestyle.

The physical sensation of hunger is based on how the human body reacts to stress by telling the adrenal glands to release a burst of adrenaline. This in turn increases the heart rate and supplies energy that is intended to be used for fight or flight situations. Next, the adrenal glands release cortisol, which instructs the body to replenish energy by stimulating an appetite for high-energy (calorie) foods. Cortisol can stay in the body for many hours, which will create hunger pains. Oddly, this same hormone also tells the body to store any unburned calories as fat. Again, this evolutionary and physical response to stress, as well as the associated storage of body fat, is not healthy in the modern age.

 

Ways to control emotional eating?

Here are 4 influencers that tend to encourage emotional eating behaviors.

[1] Food as a main pleasure:

People experience a real soothing effect when they eat certain foods like ice cream, potato chips or cookie dough. Consumption of certain comfort foods delivers a burst of short-term pleasure. These foods are addictive, so not eating them when the urge strikes is a challenge. A possible solution is for people to discover other ways to soothe their emotions besides eating food. They need to explore other (non-destructive) behaviors that bring them pleasure.

[2] Not aware of the behavior:

Sometimes people are not aware that they are eating. This is sometimes known as unconscious eating by therapists. In these cases, individuals seem to almost operate as if they are in a trance. In many ways, this behavior may resemble binge eating. Mindlessly eating or grazing while watching television or movies can easily encourage this behavior. A solution is for people to stop putting food into their mouth simply because it is available. The best prevention is to always be mindful of what and when they are eating.

[3] Difficulty Coping with Negative Feelings:

It is human nature to avoid thoughts and experiences that make a person feel bad. Sometimes this is tough, so the only way some people can avoid negative feelings is to engage in self-destructive eating behaviors. In the short-term, this will distract a person from feeling negative thoughts. However, this not a healthy long-term solution. Ideally, individuals should learn to let themselves experience negative or difficult feelings. A trained, certified and experienced behavioral health professional is helpful in this situation.

[4] Negative Body Image

People hating their own physical body and possessing an overall negative body image is a critical factor for triggering emotional eating. A downward spiral of negativity and shame makes it challenging for people to implement long-lasting healthy eating changes. Again, a skilled mental health specialist is helpful in this situation. People need to stop hating their own body before they can successfully stop their self-destructive emotional eating behaviors – and this is tough to do alone.

 

When should an individual seek professional help?

If individuals have tried to use self-help options but they still have no control over their emotional eating behavior, they should consider seeking help from an eating disorder specialist. An experienced mental health professional can help a person understand the origins of this behavior, whether it is an eating disorder as well as acquire coping skills.

For additional information or questions about emotional eating, please contact the staff at River Centre Clinic (RCC). Their Eating Disorders Programs provide a full range of treatment options for both adolescents and adults. The clinic’s main phone number is 1.877.212.5457.

The River Centre Clinic is located in a modern, spacious and tranquil setting in Sylvania, Ohio – a suburb of Toledo, OH.

Follow on Twitter:  @River_Centre

Emotional Eating, Eating Disorders,

 

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